Jon Morgan
Published by Jon Morgan | Co-Founder & Chief Editor
Last updated: August 28, 2023

Starting a limited liability company in Maine offers several advantages, making it one of the easiest states for business formation. With streamlined processes and unique benefits, Maine provides a favorable environment for entrepreneurs.

With our expertise, extensive research, and a deep understanding of Maine's business landscape, this authoritative guide provides a comprehensive roadmap for starting a limited liability company in Maine.

This article equips you with the essential steps, legal considerations, and valuable resources to successfully establish your LLC.

Quick Summary

  • Forming a limited liability company in Maine includes choosing a business name, appointing a Maine registered agent, and filing the Maine LLC Certificate of Formation, among other essential steps
  • A Maine LLC comes with several advantages for entrepreneurs, including personal liability protection and pass-through taxation
  • Consulting with legal professionals for guidance during the LLC formation process is important

Steps to Form an LLC in Maine

Man writing and reading documents

To open an LLC in Maine, there are a few steps that future LLC owners need to take.

The first step is creating an operating agreement and the certificate of formation for the LLC and then filing it with the Secretary of State to become official.

Additionally, they must choose whether or not their business will be taxed as a "pass-through" entity, a C corporation, or an S corporation.

1. Choose an LLC Name

Choosing a business name for business entities in Maine should start with the business name search.

The state of Maine provides a web-based business name search tool for business owners to use when choosing an LLC name.

Business names must be distinguishable from any existing business entity that has already been registered or is currently pending registration in Maine.

Before filing your Certificate of Formation with the Maine Secretary of State, you should check for any restrictions on registering certain words as part of your company's legal name [1].

You should also consider restricted and prohibited terms when filing the business name with the Maine Secretary of State. Words like "bank," "national bank," "trust business," or "credit union" are not acceptable business names for an LLC.

Name reservations are also an option. In this case, the business owner can reserve his or her name for 120 days from filing your Certificate of Formation with the Maine Secretary of State at a $20 filing fee.

See more information about the cost of creating an LLC in Maine.

2. Appoint a Maine Registered Agent

A woman showing a contract to an agent

Nominating a Maine registered agent is something that every LLC registered in Maine needs to do.

It becomes more vital when you have no idea how to write operating agreements or get an employer identification number.

A registered agent in Maine will serve as an official point of contact between your LLC and the state government.

They receive important legal and official documents on behalf of your company, such as tax notices, lawsuits, and other important correspondence.

Here are the key points to consider when appointing a Maine registered agent for your LLC:

  • Understand the role of a registered agent
  • Consider the agent’s eligibility and availability. Ensure that they meet the eligibility criteria set by the state of Maine. The registered agent must also be available during normal business hours to receive legal documents and other correspondence.
  • Ensure the agent has a physical address. This address must be a physical street address in Maine, as post office boxes are not typically accepted.
  • Once you have appointed a registered agent, it is crucial to maintain their services throughout the existence of your LLC. 

3. File Maine LLC Certificate of Formation

Among all other legal documents like the operating agreement, the Certificate of Formation is the most important for a Maine LLC.

The certificate is essential for making a limited liability company official in Maine and any other state they plan to do business with.

It outlines key information such as:

  • Name (the company's legal title)
  • A registered agent (who will receive mail on behalf of the company)
  • Duration (how long the company will be in existence)
  • Purpose of business (what they plan to do with their earnings/assets)
  • Assets and liabilities at the time of formation.

You want to take your time and ensure everything has been completed correctly by following directions carefully and signing forms where necessary.

Here's a detailed guide on how to complete this step:

  • Prepare the necessary information
  • Visit the Maine Secretary of State's website or their physical office to download the official Certificate of Formation form
  • Fill out the form accurately and completely. Double-check all the information you provide to avoid errors or omissions.
  • Choose a filing method. Maine offers multiple methods to file the Certificate of Formation online, by mail, or in person.
  • Along with your Certificate of Formation, you must pay a filing fee. The filing fee may vary, so check the current amount on the Maine Secretary of State website.
  • Once you have completed the form and paid the filing fee, submit your Certificate of Formation through your chosen filing method
  • Await confirmation

This document proves that your LLC exists and provides information regarding its formation.

Here is more information on the period necessary to get your Maine LLC approved.

4. Create An LLC Operating Agreement

Creating an LLC operating agreement is important once you have chosen a name and filed the necessary paperwork to establish your limited liability company in Maine.

While Maine does not legally require LLCs to have an operating agreement, it is highly recommended to have one in place.

An LLC operating agreement is a legal contract that governs the relationship between members of an LLC.

Here are the key aspects to consider when creating an LLC operating agreement in Maine:

  • Purpose of the Agreement: Begin the operating agreement by clearly stating its purpose. 
  • Ownership and Membership: Outline the ownership structure of the LLC by specifying the names, addresses, and contributions of each member.
  • Management and Decision-Making: Specify how the LLC will be managed and the decision-making processes. You can choose between member-managed or manager-managed LLCs.
  • Voting Procedures: Define the rules for voting on important matters, such as admitting new members, amending the operating agreement, or selling the company. 
  • Profit and Loss Allocation: Clearly outline how the LLC's profits and losses will be allocated among the members. This may be based on ownership percentages or through a different agreed-upon distribution method.
  • Distributions and Member Withdrawal: Describe how the LLC will distribute profits to the members and the procedure for members who wish to withdraw from the company. Include details on how assets will be divided if a member decides to leave.
  • Dissolution and Buyout Provisions: Outline the conditions under which the LLC may be dissolved and the voluntary or involuntary dissolution procedures. 
  • Dispute Resolution: Include a clause outlining the procedure for resolving member disputes. This can specify whether arbitration or mediation will be used before resorting to litigation.
  • Amendments and Governing Law: Specify the procedure for amending the operating agreement and identify the agreement's governing law, which is typically the state of Maine.

Once the agreement is drafted and reviewed, all members should sign it to indicate their acceptance and commitment to its terms.

5. Obtain LLC Business Licenses

Signing a document with law gavel

Once you’ve completed the initial steps of forming your LLC in Maine, ensure that your business operates in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.

Therefore, you’ll need to obtain business licenses from the various levels of government.

The paperwork required for an LLC varies by region, type of company (profit or nonprofit), number of employees, and other factors.

A general business license is still required even if you don't provide professional services.

The licensing process is the same for all types of LLCs, but you may have to file different forms depending on your offered professional services and the number of employees.

For example, a single-member LLC with no employees will use one set of documents, while a company with ten or more workers must complete other paperwork.

In addition, if you plan to hire independent contractors as part of your business operations in Maine, this should be reflected on any applications submitted.

You can obtain copies from the state's Business Services Online portal. If you require help understanding what needs to be done, seek support from an experienced professional specializing in setting up new companies in Maine.

6. Acquire An EIN

Employer Identification Number (EIN) or federal employer identification number is a nine-digit number used to identify companies and corporations.

It works like your social security number but for businesses instead of individuals. An EIN serves as the entity's taxpayer identification number (TIN).

To acquire an EIN, you need to apply with the Internal Revenue Service either online on the IRS website or by mail. The service is free.

If starting a new LLC in Maine, you will need an EIN and plan to hire employees or open a business bank account. Banks may require one before doing business with your company and setting up your LLC bank account.

If the only place you'll be using this number is for filing taxes, you can use your Social Security Number instead of obtaining an EIN.

What Is a Maine LLC?

A man looking up an LLC in Maine

A Maine limited liability company (LLC) is a business entity formed under Maine law.

Like most states, the LLC allows flexibility and creativity when organizing your company because it can be taxed as a partnership or a corporation.

An LLC registered in Maine will help protect your personal assets from any liabilities incurred by your Maine-based business.

The Benefits Of Maine LLC

Here are some of the top benefits of an LLC in Maine:

1. Personal liability protection

Protection from personal liability means that you have some legal protection against being held personally responsible for debts and liabilities racked up by your business.

If someone gets hurt on your property while doing something related to your company's work, you won't be liable unless it was intentional or criminal behavior.

This also protects you from creditor lawsuits when customers aren't paying their bills because the money owed comes from the business, not directly out of individuals' pockets.

2. Pass-through Taxation

In some states, businesses must pay taxes as corporations on their income and then again when that money is distributed to shareholders as dividends.

This can benefit investors who want tax breaks but not small business owners who write off expenses on their federal tax returns, just like individuals do.

Maine has pass-through taxation, where all profits from the company flow directly onto the owner's individual state return, so there isn't any double taxation to worry about.

3. Fewer Formalities than a Corporation

Most states require more extensive paperwork and processes to form a corporation than an LLC.

There is no requirement for annual meetings or shareholder votes in Maine, so business owners can avoid going through the hassle of taking care of these things if they don't want to.

Maine LLC Taxes

LLCs in Maine with employees must file Unemployment Insurance Tax and Employee Withholding Tax with the Maine Revenue Services and Maine Department of Labor.

Sales tax is a sales tax on tangible personal property and certain taxable services provided in Maine. Service providers must register with the Maine Revenue Services and charge sales tax.

Federal income taxes are based on net income and federal tax rates.

How LLCs in Maine file their taxes depends on whether they are single or multi-member LLCs.

Most LLCs have a default tax status of "disregarded entity" for income tax purposes [2]. This means the LLC is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner for federal filing and reporting purposes.

Therefore, profits or losses are reported directly on the LLC owners' federal returns, even for foreign LLC businesses.

Generally, single-member LLCs are taxed like sole proprietorship companies, while multi-member LLCs – those with two or more members – pay similar taxes to partnerships.


How Do I Get an LLC Certificate of Good Standing in Maine?

You can get an LLC Certificate of Good Standing in Maine by submitting a written request to the Secretary of State along with the applicable filing fee. The certificate confirms your LLC's compliance with state requirements and serves as proof of its active and authorized status.

What Is a Professional LLC?

A professional LLC represents professional services. Professional LLCs in Maine hold professional licenses and are usually formed by doctors, lawyers, architects, or other professional service providers who wish to separate their professional business from other non-professional businesses they might own.

Starting an LLC in Maine

Even with the associated filing fee, Maine is one of the easiest states to form an LLC, even if it's a low-profit LLC.

While it takes some time and effort, setting up this business structure in Maine can be done by anyone with a strong understanding of basic legal concepts.

If you’re considering forming an LLC for your small business or startup, we recommend seeking legal advice from ZenBusiness before proceeding.

This way, you will know what steps to take and how much work needs to go into establishing your company as a legitimate entity with all the rights afforded under state law.

Our #1 Recommendation


ZenBusiness logo and a young entrepreneur using a laptop in the background



About The Author

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *